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Chapter-2: Mineral Nutrition
Every living organism need carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, and minerals to live. Similarly, plants and nutrients for growth and development. The study of the minerals that the plant requires for sufficient and sustainable growth is known as Mineral Nutrition. The techniques used to study the mineral requirement of plants are:
1. Hydroponics: A technique in which plants are grown in nutrient solution instead of soil. This technique is used at the time of commercial production of vegetables. It is also used to study the mineral deficiency diseases in plants.
2. Aeroponics: The technique in which nutrients are sprayed suspended in the air.
Different plants have different mineral requirements. There is criterion for the essentiality of an element.
Mineral Nutrition was an important topic and fair number of questions were asked from this chapter during 2009-2012. However, after 2012, no paper has accounted for more than two questions from Mineral Nutrition, with the paper coming in 2017 and 2019 having no questions from the chapter. The popularity of Mineral Nutrition among the paper setters has decreased significantly, and hence one cannot expect more than 2 question in the coming exams.
The following Bar-Graph exhibits the frequency of question asked in the past years:
The important topics to be covered from this chapter are:
• Essential Minerals
• Macro and Micronutrients and their role
• Deficiency and their Symptoms
Tips and Tricks:
Since Mineral Nutrients turns out to be a low-weighted chapter, one must not spend a large amount of time in this chapter. Smart work is required so that the chapted is completed within a short interval of time and it yields optimum result:
• If one gets through with NCERT, one is not required to look through other books for understanding this chapter. Hence, NCERT is of utmost importance. Here is the link to the NCERT PDF version of the chapter.
• Mnemonics must be created of the various nutrients essential for the plants so that they are retained easily in the memory.
• Revision once a month or 20 days will be adequate as this is not a vast chapter.
• The past year questions must be done clearly with high precision, and they must be at the student’s fingerprints.
• Practice a large number of questions from this topic and leave no stones unturned to make this chapter one of your strengths.
Chapter-3: Photosynthesis in higher plant
The process of synthesis of organic food (carbohydrates) from CO2 and water in the presence of sunlight is called photosynthesis. All green plants have the capacity to make food by photosynthesis. It is the most important synthetic process on earth because it is the only source of carbohydrates in which solar energy is fixed in the form of chemical energy. During photosynthesis, the kinetic energy (light energy) of sunlight is transformed into chemical energy and stored in carbohydrate molecules. This chemical energy is used for the growth and sustenance of our biosphere. All animals including human beings depend on plants for their food. Various experiments are carried out to prove the elements required for photosynthesis like Variegated Leaf Experiment, Light Screen Experiment, Mohl’s Experiment etc.
This is a medium weightage chapter with questions being regularly asked. However, the last year’s paper did not include any question from Photosynthesis. A total of 20 questions have been put cumulatively in the paper held over the last 10 years. 2016 saw a hike in the number of questions asked, with 4 questions being asked. Since the questions are asked frequently, we can expect at least 1-2 questions from this chapter in the coming paper.
The below given bar-diagram represents the number of questions asked year-wise :-
The important topics to cover in Photosynthesis is :
• C3 Cycle
• C4 Cycle
Tips and Tricks:
Since this is a medium weight chapter, one has to devote ample time in persevering in the topic. The following tips might be helpful:
1. NCERT must be the first book to be read regarding this topic. Here is the link to the NCERT PDF version of the topic:
2. One must read the C3 and C4 Cycles separately and sincerely as it is the most important topic of the chapter.
3. The entire cycle must be read sufficient number of time and similarities must be brought out between the two cycles, making them easier to remember.
4. The past year questions must be solved at once.
Chapter-4: Respiration in plants
Respiration is the process in which complex organisms are combined with oxygen and are broken down to simpler substances with consequent release of energy and production of carbon dioxide and water. The term respiration was first coined by Dutrochet. The breaking down of C-C bond of complex molecules by oxidation leading to the release of a lot of energy is called cellular respiration. Plants breathe and they require oxygen for the respiration and gives out CO2. Plants don’t have any special system for breathing or gaseous exchange. Stomata and lenticels allow gaseous exchange by diffusion. Only a very little transport of gases takes place from one part to another in plants.
This is a low weighted chapter with only a few questions asked each year. In all, 11 questions have been asked in the last 11 years, averaging at one question per year. However, no questions were asked in 2015, 2012 and 2011. However, in the last three years a total of 5 questions have appeared making the chapter tentative to exhibit a question or two in the coming paper. Hence, it will be not foolish to expect at least 1 question in the coming paper from Respiration in Plants.
The below mentioned graph shows the frequency of questions asked in the previous 11 years :
The important topics to be covered from Respiration in Plants are :
• Krebs Cycle
• Respiratory Quotient
Tips and Tricks:
Since this is a low weighted chapter, this chapter must be done at once and should be given periodic revision. The following points might help:
1. As the chapter does not throw too many question in the paper, one must be thorough with the NCERT theory as it is quite likely that the asked question might be directly from NCERT. Here is the link to the NCERT PDF version of the chapter.
2. Adequate amount of questions must be solved in relation to respiratory quotient as it is easy as well as mark scoring topic.
3. Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle must be given periodic revision, once every fortnight.
4. Past year questions must be solved sincerely with utmost perseverance.
Chapter-5: Plant Growth
All cells of the plant develop from the zygote. The development of a mature plant from the zygote follow a precise and highly ordered succession of events. It is actually the sum total of growth and differentiation. A complex body organization is formed during this process. The body produces roots, leaves, branches, flowers and seeds and after that the plant dies. An irreversible permanent increase in size of an organ or its parts or even of an individual. One of the most fundamental characteristics of living things is their ability to grow and develop. A mature plant consists of numerous cell types because all the cells do not grow and develop in the same way. Plant growth is generally indeterminate. In plants growth occurs by cell division and cell enlargement.
This is a low weighted chapter with the questions being asked irregularly over the course of last ten years. Only 15 questions have been picked from this chapter to appear in the paper, averaging roughly around 1.5 question per paper. However, the paper of 2014 witness 4 questions from Plant Growth. On the other hand, most of the times, the number of questions asked has stayed below 2. The last year saw just one question being asked, and the coming paper can be expected to be no different. Hence, it will be good to expect 1 question from this topic in the coming paper.
The following bar-graph shows the number of questions asked in the past 10 years:
The important topics to cover from the chapter Plant Growth are:
• Plant Growth Regulators
• Differentiation of Plants
Tips and Tricks:
As this is a low weighted chapter, one cannot give much time in the preparation of this chapter, and hence, the chapter must be completed through smart work rather than hard work. The following tricks might prove out to be helpful :
1. One must dive into NCERT first, and cover it thoroughly so that the base is set. Here is the link to the NCERT PDF version of the topic.
2. The topics such as Plant Growth Regulators and Photoperiodism must be covered thoroughly. If one fails to understand it by reading NCERT, one must consult video lectures with interactive dynamics.
3. Flash Cards must be created for this topic, as time by time revision will keep everything afresh.
4. The past year question must be solved.
5. Questions given at the end of the NCERT chapter must be read thoroughly, and the explanations must be pondered over again and again.