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## Chapter-2:Atomic Structure

### Introduction:

This chapter contains important information about electron , proton and neutron related to their discovery . It discusses the early proposed models of several people like Rutherford and Bohr . Involves concept of shells and subshells , dual nature of matter and light , de Broglie’s relationship along with Hiesenberg’s uncertainty principle , quantum numbers , orbitals and their shapes . Also describes the rules of Aufbau , Pauli and Hund for filling electrons in degenerate orbitals .

### Chapter Analysis:

The number of questions has gradually increased from past 5 years as compared to the previous 6 years since 2009 . There are a total of 20 questions asked in the past 11 years . The average of first 6 years from 2009 being 1.33 whereas in the latter half being 2.4 with 3 questions every alternate year . Going by the data we can expect 1 to 3 questions this year but 3 has less probability so it’s still a low weighed chapter .
The below given bar-graph illustrates the frequency of questions appearing in paper from this chapter : Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 3 1 3 2 3 2 0 2 1 1 2

The important topics to cover from this chapter are:
• Thompson’s and Bohr’s models of atoms
• Quantum NUmbers and shapes of orbitals
• De Broglie’s and Hiesenberg’s hypothesis
• Rules of orbital filling

## Chapter-3:Periodic Properties

### Introduction:

This chapter signifies the importance of classification and then briefly tells about the history of modern periodic law and formation of periodic table .The periodic table is arranged according to periodic properties in terms of ionization energy, electronegativity, atomic radius, electron affinity, and metallic character. . Along with it the nomenclature of elements with atomic no. higher than 100 is discussed .

### Chapter Analysis:

Direct questions related with this chapter have been scarce as it is mostly used as a building concept for other chapters . It has only 8 questions in its account since 2009 with 1 or no question each year with almost at an equal probability . The highest record in 2018 was of two questions being the only instance where more than 1 question was asked . Thus it is clear that no more than 1 question might be asked . Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 1 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1

The important topics to cover from this chapter are:
• Periodic Law and table
• Trend and properties of table and its elements
• Ionization and electron gain enthalpy

## Chapter-4:Chemical Bonding

### Introduction:

The fundamental of all Chemistry - Bonds are taught in this chapter . Chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. Various types of bonds are discussed such as ionic and covalent bonds along with their parameters . Lewis structure , Valence Bond Theory , VSEPR theory and concept of hybridisation are highlights of this chapter . Some shapes of simple molecules and Molecular Orbital theory for diatomic molecules are also present with a small addition of hydrogen bond.

### Chapter Analysis:

This is a medium weighted chapter with 2 or more than 2 questions popping up every year . It reached its peak in 2013 with 5 questions being asked that year and the years 2009 , 2011 , 2015 , 2018 and 2019 witnessing 4 questions each . This takes its average to approximately 3.5 questions per year . We can therefore expect 3 to 5 questions from this chapter with 4 being the most probable .
The below given bar-graph illustrates the frequency of questions appearing in paper from this chapter : Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 4 4 2 3 4 3 5 3 4 2 4

The important topics to cover from this chapter are:
• Different types of bonds
• Valence Bond Theory and VSEPR theory
• Hybridisation and orbitals

## Chapter-5:Gases-And-Liquids

### Introduction:

This chapter is all about the states of matter but with special emphasis on liquids and gases . Intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charles' law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation are part of this chapter . It also involves Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. The other things being discussed are Vapour Pressure , Viscosity and Surface Tension .

### Chapter Analysis:

This chapter has irregularity in its numbers . Its peak arising in the year 2017 but with the next year having 0 questions only gives rise to uncertainty . With a total of 12 questions being asked in 11 years it’s not as much important chapter though can’t be relaxed due to the sudden bumps . The prediction can be made of around 1 or 2 questions but can’t be quite sure due to its trends .
The below given bar-graph illustrates the frequency of questions appearing in paper from this chapter : Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 1 0 4 1 2 1 0 0 0 2 1

The important topics to cover from this chapter are:
• Boyle's law, Charles' law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law
• Ideal Behaviour of gases
• Kinetic energy, deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature
• Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension

## Chapter-8:Energetics

### Introduction:

Chemical energetics is the study of chemical changes caused by energy. The study of relationship between heat , work and other forms of energy is called Thermodynamics . Concepts of system and types of systems along with surroundings are first taught here . First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution are all included here .Introduction of entropy as a state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.

### Chapter Analysis:

This chapter has been completely neglected in terms of direct questions . Though it is a very important topic and must be studied thoroughly and yet is almost invisible from the scheme of questions . There’s nothing to but for a single question in 2017 and rest all didn’t have a count . Hence we don’t expect a direct question comming through this year as well .
The below given bar-graph illustrates the frequency of questions appearing in paper from this chapter : Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

The important topics to be covered:
• First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy
• measurement of ΔU and ΔH
• Second law of thermodynamics

## Chapter-9:Chemical Kinetics

### Introduction:

It is the study of rate of reactions and hence also called reaction kinetics . It deals with experimental determination of rates from which rate laws and constants are derived . It also investigates how different conditions affect the rates of reactions . Along with that other factors such as concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life ; concept of collision theory are taught . Activation energy & Arrhenious equation are also discussed .

### Chapter Analysis:

The rate of questions emanating from this chapter was almost steady but for the last two years . It saw a sudden increase in the no. of question in the years 2018 - 19 with 3 and 4 questions being asked respectively . before that 15 questions were asked in the preceding 9 years with most years 2 being the common count with one each of 1 question and 0 question popping in . We can predict 3 to 4 questions this year also going by the recent two years .
The below given bar-graph illustrates the frequency of questions appearing in paper from this chapter : Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 4 3 2 2 2 0 2 1 2 2 2

The important topics to be covered:
• Rate laws and molecularity
• Collision theory
• Activation theory and Arrhenious equation

## Chapter-10:Equilibrium

### Introduction:

Chemical equilibrium is a state in which both the reactants and the products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time . First you will study about chemical equilibrium which contains chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium- Le Chatelier's principle . Then comes the ionic equilibrium having - ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Hydrolysis of salts , buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect.

### Chapter Analysis:

This chapter has had its fair share of questions in the past . With a total of 33 questions in the past 11 years takes it into middle weighted category with an average of 3 questions per year . The peak was reached in 2018 only when a whopping 6 questions were asked from this particular chapter . Going by the trend it’s safe to expect at least 3 questions henceforth .
The below given bar-graph illustrates the frequency of questions appearing in paper from this chapter : Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 3 6 2 3 2 4 3 2 3 3 3

The important topics to be covered:
• law of chemical equilibrium and le - Chatelier’s principle
• ionization of acids and bases and concept of pH
• Buffer Solution and Solubility product

## Chapter-11:Electrochemistry

### Introduction:

It is the branch of Physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions taking place at interface of electrodes and the electrolyte . Most importantly It deals with the interaction of electrical energy and chemical energy and their interconversion . Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variation of conductivity concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis , dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion are all discussed here .

### Chapter Analysis:

Questions continuously come from this chapter with the only exception being in 2018 . It can be stated as a moderately weighted chapter with 22 questions in the past 11 years at an average of 2. However for the past 5 years , 3 questions have been asked every alternate year . The highest amount was 5 in the year 2012 . We can safely predict a no. between 2 and 3 for the next years .
The below given bar-graph illustrates the frequency of questions appearing in paper from this chapter : Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 3 0 3 1 3 2 1 5 1 1 2

The important topics to be covered:
• Laws of electrolysis
• Table of electronegativity and potentials
• Gibbs Energy law
• Various kinds of cells

## Chapter-12:Surface Chemistry

### Introduction:

Study of reactions in which reactants are fast adsorbed on the surface medium which may further act as a catalyst for the reaction . This chapter differentiates between the concepts of absorption , adsorption and desorption . Adsorption contains physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,catalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state:distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic , lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis,coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions are hereby discussed .

### Chapter Analysis:

Questions have been missing lately from this chapter with the past two years having nothing to show . before that there was a constant flow of questions with mostly one question being asked every year except 2 being asked in 2016 and 2012 and none in 2015 . This is certainly a low weighed chapter and has just 10 questions in its bank . We can expect almost no question from it with a slight probability of one question here or there .
The below given bar-graph illustrates the frequency of questions appearing in paper from this chapter : Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 0 0 1 2 0 1 1 2 1 1 1

The important topics to be covered:
• Catalysts
• Reaction on enzymes
• Properties of colloids
• Emulsions

## Chapter-13:Redox Reaction

### Introduction:

In redox process the reductant transfers electrons to the oxidant and is oxidised and the oxidant gains electrons and is reduced . Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number , balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers are some highlights of this chapter .

### Chapter Analysis:

This chapter has an irregular side but with low numbers all along . Mostly either 1 or 0 questions are being asked with 2016 being an exception having 2 questions asked that year . With a total of 7 questions in 11 years this chapter has little importance directly in the paper . Most fittingly one question might be asked again next year too .
The below given bar-graph illustrates the frequency of questions appearing in paper from this chapter : Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 1

The important topics to be covered:
• Redox Reactions
• Oxidation Number
• Balancing redox reactions