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## Chapter-1:Semiconductors

### Introduction:

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor such as metallic copper, and an insulator, such as glass. Its resistance decreases as its temperature increases, which is behavior opposite to that of a metal. Its conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate controlled introduction of impurities into the crystal structures.

### Chapter Analysis:

With 16 questions being asked from this chapter in the last 11 years, this chapter falls in the low-weighted category. The last two years have seen 2 question being asked each year. Except for the year 2013, atleast one question has been asked every year. So, we can expect 1-2 question from this chapter in the coming years.
The below given graph will illustrate the above-mentioned analysis:

Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 2 2 1 1 1 2 0 2 2 3 2

The important topics to be covered from this topic are:
• Energy Bands in Conductors
• Semiconductors and Insulators
• Semiconductor Diode – IV Characteristics in Forward and Reverse Bias
• Diode as a Rectifier

### Tips and Tricks:

• The students must begin with reading the NCERT portion as it has a good basic explanation of the chapter and helps form the base for further reading. Here is the link to the NCERT PDF version of the mentioned chapter:
• Flash Cards are to be created by the students so that they are able to revise the parts and their functions easily.
• Mnemonics may be created uniquely by the student so that they are able to retain the parts in their mind easily.
• All the past year questions must be solved so that one understands the type of questions that are asked in the paper.
• Revision every week should be done to keep the chapter fresh.

## Chapter-2:Transistors And Diodes,Triodes

### Introduction:

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of transistor’s terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals.

### Chapter Analysis:

Although no question was asked from this chapter in the previous paper, one question each was asked in the years from 2015-18. In 2012, 2 questions were asked while in 2014, no question were asked. A total of 10 questions have been asked in the past 11 years, making it a low-weighted chapter. Hence, we can expect at most 1 question from this chapter in the coming papers.
The below given graph will illustrate the above-mentioned analysis:

Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1

The important topics to be covered from this chapter are:
• Special Purpose P-N Junction Diodes : LED, Photodiode, Solar Cell and Zener Diode
• Zener Diode as a Voltage Regulator
• Junction Transistor
• Transistor Action

### Tips and Tricks:

1. Be thorough with the NCERT portion. Here is the link to the NCERT PDF version of this chapter:
2. Make Mind Map of the entire chapter for easier revision.
3. Solve the past year paper sincerely and make them at your fingertips and get acquainted with the type of question that can be asked in the coming papers.
4. Practice a large number of questions from this topic and leave no stones unturned to make this chapter one of your strengths.
5. Online video lectures must be looked upon as they will provide interactive animations thereby making the subject matter easier to understand.

## Chapter-3:Logic Gates

### Introduction:

A logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device.

### Chapter Analysis:

Except for the year of 2014, 2018 and 2019, one question has been asked from this chapter in the past 11 years. And the pattern has been astonishing. The last two year’s paper had no question being asked from them and hence, we should not be expecting more than 1 question from this chapter.
The below given graph will illustrate the above-mentioned analysis:

Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1

The important topics to be covered from this chapter are:
• Basic Idea of Analog and Digital Signals
• Logic Gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR)
• DNA Fingerprinting

### Tips and Tricks:

2. Making Flash Cards and Flow Charts will help in quick revision
3. A List of important keywords with their meaning must be maintained
4. All the past year questions must be solved thoroughly

## Chapter-4:EM waves

### Introduction:

EM Waves are chaning electric and magnetic fields, transporting energy and momentum thrugh space. EM Waves are solutions of Maxwell’s Equations, which are the fundamental equations of electrodynamics. They require no medium and can travel through empty space. Sinusoidal plane waves are one type of electromagnetic waves.

### Chapter Analysis:

The last 7 years have had 1 question each being asked from the chapter consecutively. The year of 2009, 2010 and 2012 had no question being asked. With 8 question from the past 11 years, we should expect only 1 question from this chapter in the coming paper.
The below given graph will illustrate the above-mentioned analysis:

Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

The important topics to be covered from this particular chapter are:
• Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Radio Waves, Microwaves, Infrared, Visible, Ultra Violet, X-Rays, Gamma Rays
• Elementary Facts about their uses

### Tips and Tricks:

• Be thorough with the NCERT portion. Here is the link to the NCERT PDF version of this chapter:
• Make Mind Map of the entire chapter for easier revision.
• Solve the past year paper sincerely and make them at your fingertips and get acquainted with the type of question that can be asked in the coming papers.
• Practice a large number of questions from this topic and leave no stones unturned to make this chapter one of your strengths.
• Online video lectures must be looked upon as they will provide interactive animations thereby making the subject matter easier to understand.

## Chapter-5:Communication

### Introduction:

A communication system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmissions systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole. The components of a communication system serve a common purpose, are technically compatible, use common procedure, respond to controls, and operate in union.

### Chapter Analysis:

No question has been asked from this chapter in the past 11 years. With not much to analyze, we should not be expecting any question from this chapter in the coming years.
The below given graph will illustrate the above-mentioned analysis:

Year 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Questions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

The important topics to be covered from this chapter are:
• Elements of a Communication System
• Bandwidth of Signals
• Bandwidth of Transmission Medium
• Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in the atmosphere
• Satellite Communication
• Need for Modulation
• Amplitude Modulation

### Tips and Tricks:

• The students must begin with reading the NCERT portion as it has a good basic explanation of the chapter and helps form the base for further reading. Here is the link to the NCERT PDF version of the mentioned chapter:
• Flash Cards are to be created by the students so that they are able to revise the parts and their functions easily.
• Mnemonics may be created uniquely by the student so that they are able to retain the parts in their mind easily.
• Revision every week should be done to keep the chapter fresh.