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Botany Overview

Biology comprises of botany and zoology
Botany is the branch of biology concerned with the scientific study of plants. ... However, advances in our knowledge about the myriad forms of life, especially microbes (viruses and bacteria)
Both of the subjects carries 45 questions comprising of 360 marks , therefore the aspirants should provide equal efforts to these subjects.

Students should get thorough with the topic of Biology since Class 11 as the syllabus carries equal distribution of questions from Class 11 and Class 12.
Preparation for NEET Biology requires a candidate to be thorough with the NCERT as the syllabus and questions for the Biology are almost entirely based on it. Analysis of NEET previous year question papers has proved that the difficulty level of the question paper has increased over the years.

Botany - Important Topics

Based on the weightage and the frequency of questions over the years, the important topics for preparation of botany can be listed as :-
• Physiology – Plant
• Reproduction – Flowering Plants
• Plant Diversity
• Ecology
• Structural Organization in Living Organisms
• Cell Structure and Function
• Genetics

In these chapters, Genetics carries the highest marks, therefore students should give more focus on genetics. Students should also practice numerical which has been asked from this chapter which includes the pedigree charts .
To learn about plant physiology , students should take helps of diagram for better understanding.
Plant diversity should be learnt with the help of flow charts and tables.

Prepare tables and flowcharts:

The best way to learn Botany is with the help of charts and tables, that will help in quick revision strategy before your exam days.
The classification of plant kingdom should be learned through the pneumonic which are also given in the notes and also covered in video lectures provided by the teachers. Try and include important applications and examples in these charts. As the notes provided by KAYSONS EDUCATION includes pie charts, diagrams, tables to memorize easily and understand the concept.

Practice and repeat learning:

Aspirants preparing Biology for NEET 2020 must develop the habit of intense practice. Practice will also help in learning the concepts. Practicing more number of NEET sample papers and previous year question papers should be solved to get an idea about the pattern of questions that will be asked. You should practice the Question provided in the end of the chapters to clear the concepts about the topic.

Attend the mock tests:

Aspirants should, take up as many mock tests as possible to enhance their preparation for NEET Biology. The student should attend each and every level of test conducted by KAYSONS EDUCATIONS. It includes chapter level test, unit level test and subject level test. This institution provides you a test series to the students who performs better in these tests named Doctors Paradise and Doctors Material.

Doubt clearance regularly:

The aspirants should clear their doubt regularly. Kaysons Education provides you the facility to clear you doubts at each level when you are preparing and solving the questions. One more facility is added to the package that you can also see the doubts asked by the other students and you can clear it at that time only.

Revise Regularly:

To get the proper benefits of studying and practicing one should keep revising at regular intervals. This will help in the memorizing. Candidates should make it a point to revise the entire syllabus several times before the exams so as to be thorough with each concept included in each topic. When one student do regular revision, one can keep the track of the progress of the study


Unit-1: The Living World


Life can be defined as a unique aggregation of molecules. These molecules have the tendency to express themselves through various reactions collectively called metabolic reactions. The basic purpose of these reactions is to transform or produce and utilize energy. The term used to define these reactions in a cumulative way is metabolism. Through metabolism, various biomolecules are synthesized resulting in growth, development, responsiveness, adaptations and reproduction. The forms that possess and express all these features are called Living beings. These living being live in almost all possible habitats like forests, mountains, deserts, oceans, freshwater bodies, hot springs, polar regions etc. They are linked to one another by sharing the common genetic material. All living beings share characteristics like organization, energy utilization, regulation or homeostasis growth, development, reproduction and adaptation.

Paper Analysis:

The Living World happens to be a low-weighted chapter with only 6 questions being asked in the past 11 years. On an average, we can expect 1 question at max from this particular chapter, it being a simple one. There has been irregularity in the appearance of questions in the question paper. No question came for continuous years in 2014 and 2015, while before that, the question appeared alternatively every year. The last two year has seen one question being asked each time so there is a fare chance of a question being asked in the coming paper.
The important topics to be covered from this chapter are
• Taxonomy and Systematics
• Characteristics of Living Organisms
Below is the Bar-Graph depicting the number of questions asked in the last papers.

Tips and Tricks:

Since this chapter has a relatively low weightage in NEET papers, this chapter needs to be finished quickly and precisely.
The following tips might help you out:
• Reading NCERT shall be the first stop towards covering this chapter. That will make the students concept crystal clear. Here is the link for the NCERT PDF version of the chapter:
• Making a mind map of the chapter will clearly help the students in revision. Making Flash cards will also be beneficial.
• All questions from the past 10 years NEET paper must be covered.
• Along with the above points, students must practice adequate number of questions from this chapter.
• Revision once a fortnight is a must so that one does not forget the core of the chapter.

Unit-2: Structural Organization in Plants


The observable and perceivable biological phenomena were recorded before experiments could be conducted and hence naturalists earlier could only describe biology. The establishment of morphology and anatomy of the plants gave a vast set of data that were remarkable in terms of details and were very helpful for scientists to explain and research further more regarding the plants’ biological processes and their evolution. In the following chapters of this unit, you will learn about the structural organisation of plants, including their morphology, anatomy and their division on this basis.

Paper Analysis:

Structural organisation in plants is a moderate-weighed chapter with around 5 questions being asked in previous years. This unit is a must study as it might have a lot to remember but if you do you are sure to bag the full score in the questions appearing from this unit. As this is an important unit in the botany section, you can expect around 5 questions to be asked in the upcoming NEET exam too.

The following are the important chapters to be covered in this unit:

  • Anatomy of flowering plants
  • Morphology of flowering plants

Tips and Tricks:

You have to make sure that you read this unit thoroughly, going through it in details and remembering all the features of particular divisions along with examples and if need be, specific features of important plants.

Unit-3: Cell Biology


Cell Biology is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell Biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment.


Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

Chapter Analysis:

With a total of 39 question being asked in the past 11 years, this chapter happens to be one of the most important chapters from the NEET Syllabus. Only once in the past 11 years has the question count fallen below 3, i.e. in 2017. Other than that, all the other years have had at least 3 questions. The past two years had 7 question being asked. So, we should be expecting at least 3-4 questions from this chapter in the coming paper. The below mentioned graph illustrates the analysis given above:

The important topics to be covered from this chapter are:
• Cell Theory and Cell as the Basic Unit of Life
• Structure of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell
• Comparison of Plant Cell and Animal Cell
• Difference between Cell Membrane and Cell Wall
• Cell Organeles - Structure and Function

Unit-4: Plant Physiology


UNIT – 4: Plant Physiology


While the anatomy and morphology of a plant is described at an organismic and structural level of organisation, the functioning and biological phenomena occurring inside a plant is described at a cellular and molecular level of organisation. The former resulted in the ecology and related disciplines and the later resulted in biochemistry and physiology. In the following chapters of this unit, you will learn about the physiological processes occurring in the flowering plants including the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, transport & mineral nutrition and growth & development at a cellular level.

Paper Analysis:

Plant physiology is a very important unit for the NEET exam. It is a heavy-weighed unit in terms of the number of questions asked in the question paper. This unit is absolutely significant because of its weightage. In the previous year a total of 9 questions were asked from this unit, so expect at least 7 questions from this unit to appear in the upcoming NEET exam. You will have to learn all the necessary details and also understand the processes and phenomena in details. If you are thorough in this unit then you will surely bag at least 28 marks from this unit in the biology section.

The following are the important chapters to be covered in this unit:

  • Transport in Plants
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development

Tips and Tricks:

If studied mindfully, plant physiology is a very interesting chapter. Also, since it has a significant weightage in the exam, it is all the more important to study it thoroughly. There is an advantage in this chapter that is you can understand a few processes rather than just mugging it up.

  • First of all, follow the NCERT to strengthen your base in this unit. Go line-by-line and highlight important points and processes.
  • There are a lot of video animations present in the internet that will help you understand and memorise maximum parts of this unit easily, plus they make this unit even more interesting.
  • Make side-notes for all the different processes that are important.
  • Draw all the important cycles, including the reagents, products, enzymes and catalysts, if any.
  • Make summarised points for different hormones and their functions.
  • Make sure you revise all the notes frequently as this is a rather vastly detailed unit and as a result forgettable.

Unit-5: Reproduction in Plants


The plants in which the sex organs are carried within the flowers and the seeds are enclosed in a fruit are called angiosperms. Angiosperms are commonly known as flowering plants. The flowering plants reproduce by ‘sexual reproduction’ method. This means that two sexes are involved in reproduction in flowering plants. Like human beings, plants have also male and female sex organs, though they are different in form from humans. The sex organs (or reproductive organs) of a plant are in its flowers. In other words, flowers contain the sexual reproductive organs of a plant. The function of a flower is to make male and female gametes and to ensure that fertilization will take place to make new seeds for the reproduction of plant. Sexual reproduction is the most common method of reproduction in flowering plants. A flower makes both male and female gametes needed for sexual reproduction in plants.

Chapter Analysis:

Now here comes one of the most frequented chapters for NEET – Reproduction in Flowering Plant. All in all, this chapter has provided 45 question cumulatively in the last 10 years, averaging above 4 questions per year. Last year saw a hike in the number of questions asked with a total of 6 question being asked. Except for 2016, each year has seen more than or equal to 3 questions being asked, hence this is one of the chapters which must be prepared sincerely. So, it will be a good estimate to expect 5-6 question in the coming paper.
The following bar-graphs depict the question pattern in the last 10 years:

The following topics must be prepared with utmost sincerity with regards to this chapter:
• Flower Structure
• Pollination
• Double Fertilization
• Post Fertilization Event
• Development of Seed and Formation of Fruit
• Special Modes – Apomixis, Parthenocarpy and Polyembryony

Tips and Tricks:

Since this is one of the heavy weight chapter, it must be prepared with utmost dedication and sincerity. The following tips and tricks might be helpful:
1. This is a tough chapter and will require hard labor. One should start with the NCERT to set the tone for further reading. Here is the link to the NCERT PDF version of the chapter:
2. Students must further look up for interactive animations as well as video lectures for more clearer understanding.
3. The diagrams must be understood completely and practiced every couple of weeks or so. Redrawing will help the student in remembering the parts exactly.
4. Mnemonics for the various steps must be created which will convert hard work to smart work.
5. Practicing the previous year question paper is a must so that one gets acquainted with the type of question which can be expected in the coming paper.

Unit-6: Genetics



The theory of genetics is has a major significance in many fields and aspects of biology. All thanks to the work of Gregor J. Mendel and his followers who experimented on genetic inheritance and gave us the foundation to modern day genetics. In the following chapters of this unit, you will learn about the structural basis of change in genotype and phenotype and the structure and function of genetic material that is DNA.

Paper Analysis:

This has to be one of the most important and mark-fetching units among others in botany. While this unit has a number of things that you will have to memorise, there are also a lot of topics that is to be understood well. When you do understand them well after going through them in details, answering questions based on those topics is relatively easy. This unit is absolutely essential to master as it held 10 questions in the previous year and a similar amount in past years too, expect at least 7 questions from this unit in this year.

The following are the important chapters to be covered in this unit:

  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Tips and Tricks:

Ensure that you go through the unit in detail, understanding all the basic concepts and phenomena and also memorising a few things along the way.

  • Start by going line-by-line through the NCERT book and understanding and memorising specific important lines or points.
  • Go through all the experiments conducted in this unit in detail and understand how the outcome came to be.
  • You can use flow charts and tables for a few concepts like for the crosses.
  • Solve as much questions as you can from the previous year question papers.
  • Revise the concepts once in a while.

Unit-7: biology and human welfare


Biology as a subject can be considered as a discipline of natural science. Applications of biology in our daily life may be limited but it is very significant for the human kind. In the following chapters of this unit, you will learn about how biological knowledge has been used for human welfare, including antibiotics or drugs, diagnostics, agriculture, food processing, etc. and how they have brought socio-economic changes.

Paper Analysis:

This unit has yielded at least 4 and upto 8 questions in the NEET exam in the previous few years, which makes it significantly important in order to achieve a good score. This unit is mostly fact-based and there are a lot of things that you will have to memorise, but it certainly would not be considered boring or too difficult as compared to a few other units.

The following are the chapters covered in this unit:

  • Human health and disease
  • Strategies for enhancement in food production
  • Microbes in human welfare

Tips and Tricks:

As mentioned above, this unit is mostly fact based and requires you to be able to memorise a lot of details and specifics. That said, it is not too difficult and if focussed on properly, will definitely help you score higher.

  • Make sure you go through the NCERT book thoroughly and line-by-line, as sometimes the questions asked in the exam are a sentence picked undisturbed right from the NCERT book.
  • Solve previous year question papers to get an idea of what kind of questions are asked in the exam.
  • Make summarised notes of the unit separately.
  • Remember the specific pathogens, recent diseases, types of immunity and newly discovered vaccines, if any.
  • Frequent revision is must.

Unit-8: Ecology and Environment


Ecology is a discipline of biology that deals with the relationship among living organisms and their interaction with their environment. It helps you gain a deep understanding of population, community and ecosystem. In the following chapters of this unit you will learn about the study of anthropogenic environmental degradation and the accompanying socio-political issues.

Paper Analysis:

If you go through previous year question papers, you will realise how essential it is to master this unit. This unit holds around 13% of weightage in general, in the NEET exam. It is difficult to master this unit in the sense that there are a lot of specific points that you will have to memorise, but doing so is highly rewarding. There were 8 questions in the NEET exam in the previous year, so you can expect to get at least 6 questions as per previous few years of exams.

The following are the chapters covered in this unit:

  • Organisms and Populations
  • Ecosystem
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Environmental Issues

Tips and Tricks:

This unit is also a fact-based unit with several specific facts that are to be memorised by heart in order to master it. It is vast and difficult but mastering it is equally rewarding.

  • Go through the concepts of this unit thoroughly from the NCERT book and understand them.
  • Go through the case studies for extra reference.
  • Stay updated with recent environmental issues and efforts made to eliminate them.
  • Practice question papers of previous year in order to familiarize yourself with the pattern of questions.
  • There are graphical questions, diagrammatic questions, numerical questions and reasoning questions so go through them thoroughly.

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